Leading presidents and prime ministers from around the world are meeting for the annual G20 leaders’ summit in India’s capital, Delhi, from 9-10 September.
The main theme for this year’s meeting is sustainable development, but the ongoing conflict in Ukraine is also expected to be discussed.
What is the G20?
The G20 – or Group of Twenty – is a club of countries which meets to discuss plans for the global economy.
Between them, G20 countries account for 85% of the world’s economic output and 75% of world trade. They contain two-thirds of the global population.
The members are the European Union and 19 nations – Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the UK and the US. Spain is always invited as a guest.
A smaller group of G20 member countries meets as the G7.
The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier forum for international economic cooperation. It plays an important role in shaping and strengthening global architecture and governance on all major international economic issues
Some of the G20 member nations – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – have formed a separate group called Brics.
This is due to expand, having invited six other nations to join at its recent summit: Argentina, Egypt, Iran, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
What does the group discuss?
The issues discussed by G20 leaders have broadened in recent years from just economics to include issues such as climate change, sustainable energy, international-debt forgiveness and taxing multinational corporations.
Every year, a different G20 member state takes over the presidency and sets the agenda for meetings.
Indonesia held the presidency in 2022, and the leaders’ summit was held in Bali.
As 2023 president, India wants the Delhi summit to concentrate on sustainable development, as well as measures to spread economic growth more evenly between developed and developing countries.
The summit also provides an opportunity for one-to-one discussions to take place alongside group sessions.
The White House says that US President Joe Biden will talk to individual leaders about tackling climate change, Russia’s war in Ukraine, and getting global organisations such as the World Bank to do more to fight poverty.
Are there any controversial issues for G20 countries?
Russia’s war in Ukraine is likely to cause discord at the Delhi summit.
In March 2022, the G20 foreign ministers were unable to reach agreements at their meeting because of fierce arguments over the war between the US and Russia delegations.
At the Bali leaders’ summit in November 2022, discussions were dominated by a crisis involving missiles from the war falling on Poland’s side of the border with Ukraine.
Russian President Putin will not attend the New Delhi summit. The Kremlin says he will be “too busy”, and that his foreign minister, Sergei Lavrov, will go instead.
Mr Lavrov also represented Putin at the recent Brics summit in South Africa, although the president also addressed that meeting by video link.
In May, China and Saudi Arabia boycotted a G20 meeting on tourism which was held in Kashmir because the region contains territory claimed by Pakistan as well as India.
What has the G20 achieved?
At the 2008 and 2009 leaders’ summits, during the financial crisis, leaders agreed a host of measures to rescue the global economic system.
But some critics argue that subsequent summits have been less successful, often as a result of tensions between rival world powers.
However, bilateral meetings at the summit have often proved constructive.
In 2019, at Osaka, then-US president Donald Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed to resume talks to settle a major trade dispute.
When was G20 founded?
The G20 was founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis as a forum for Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues.
Who are G20 members?
The Group of Twenty (G20) comprises 19 countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Türkiye, United Kingdom and United States) and the European Union. The G20 members represent around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population.
How the G20 works?
The G20 Presidency steers the G20 agenda for one year and hosts the Summit. India received the G20 Presidency on 1 December 2022 and now it has handed over the G20 Presidency to Brazil. Before India, Indonesia had won the G20 Presidency in 2022.
The G20 consists of two parallel tracks: the Finance Track and the Sherpa Track. Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors lead the Finance Track while Sherpas lead the Sherpa Track after Finance Track.
G20 Summit in India: Schedule and venue details :
The G20 Summit in Delhi will be held over two days, on September 9 and 10. The two-day summit will draw leaders and delegates from 40 countries, including the 20 member states. The G20 Summit is set to be hosted at the state-of-the-art Bharat Mandapam Convention Centre at Pragati Maidan.
- Russia-Ukraine war